计算IP、ICMP、TCP和UDP包的校验和

校验和算法

校验和的计算方法在文档RFC 1071 中有如下说明:

(1) Adjacent octets to be checksummed are paired to form 16-bit
integers, and the 1’s complement sum of these 16-bit integers is
formed.

(2) To generate a checksum, the checksum field itself is cleared,
the 16-bit 1’s complement sum is computed over the octets
concerned, and the 1’s complement of this sum is placed in the
checksum field.

即首先将校验和字段清零,将待求和数据调整为偶数字节(如为奇数字节则最后一个字节扩展为字)。然后用反码相加法(进位加到低位上)、以字为单位累加待求和数据。最后将累加结果取反并截低16 位作为校验和。

之所以使用反码相加法,是为了让计算结果和网络序或主机序无关。

根据这个规则,计算校验和的的C 语言函数可以做如下实现。

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uint16_t
GetChecksum (const void * const addr, const size_t bytes)
{
const uint16_t *word;
uint32_t sum;
uint16_t checksum;
size_t nleft;
assert (addr);
assert (bytes > 8 - 1);
word = (const uint16_t *)addr;
nleft = bytes;
/* 使用32 位累加器,顺序累加16 位数据,进位保存在高16 位 */
for (sum = 0; nleft > 1; nleft -=2)
{
sum += *word;
++word;
}
/* 如果总字节为奇数则处理最后一个字节 */
sum += nleft ? *(uint8_t *)word : 0;
/* 将进位加到低16 位,并将本次计算产生的进位再次加到低16 位 */
sum = (sum >> 16) + (sum & 0xffff);
sum += (sum >> 16);
/* 结果取反并截低16 位为校验和 */
return checksum = ~sum;
}

下面会使用这个校验和计算函数分别计算IP、ICMP、TCP和UDP 包的校验和。

IP 包校验和的计算

IP 包校验和的计算范围在RFC 791 中有如下说明:

The checksum field is the 16 bit one’s complement of the one’s
complement sum of all 16 bit words in the header. For purposes of
computing the checksum, the value of the checksum field is zero.

即IP 包的校验和只计算包头。

根据描述,IP 包的校验和可用C 语言做如下计算。

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struct iphdr *ipheader;
ipheader = (struct iphdr *)packet;
/* 填充ipheader... */
/* 计算该IP 包校验和 */
ipheader->check = 0;
ipheader->check = GetChecksum (ipheader, sizeof (struct iphdr));

ICMP 包校验和的计算

ICMP 包校验和的计算范围在RFC 792 中有如下说明:

The checksum is the 16-bit ones’s complement of the one’s
complement sum of the ICMP message starting with the ICMP Type.
For computing the checksum , the checksum field should be zero.
This checksum may be replaced in the future.

即ICMP 包的计算范围包括包头和数据。

根据描述,假设IP 包校验和已经计算完毕,那么其中的ICMP 包校验和可以用C 语言做如下计算。

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struct icmphdr *icmpheader;
const size_t ipheaderSize = sizeof (struct iphdr);
icmpheader = (struct icmphdr *)(packet + ipheaderSize);
/* 填充icmpheader... */
/* 计算该ICMP 包校验和 */
icmpheader->checksum = 0;
icmpheader->checksum = GetChecksum (icmpheader, packetSize - ipheaderSize);

TCP 和UDP 包校验和的计算

伪首部

TCP 和UDP 校验和的计算要稍微麻烦一些,因为需要引入一个伪首部(pseudo header),伪首部的结构在RFC 768 中有如下说明:

The pseudo header conceptually prefixed to the UDP header contains the
source address, the destination address, the protocol, and the UDP
length. This information gives protection against misrouted datagrams.
This checksum procedure is the same as is used in TCP.

 0      7 8     15 16    23 24    31
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
|          source address           |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
|        destination address        |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
|  zero  |protocol|   UDP length    |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+

可见TCP 和UDP 的伪首部结构完全一致。

根据描述,伪首部的结构可以用C 语言结构体做如下实现。

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typedef struct pseudohdr
{
uint32_t src;
uint32_t dst;
uint8_t zero;
uint8_t protocol;
uint16_t len;
} pseudohdr_t;

TCP 包校验和的计算

TCP 包校验和的计算方法在RFC 793 中有如下说明:

The checksum field is the 16 bit one’s complement of the one’s
complement sum of all 16 bit words in the header and text. If a
segment contains an odd number of header and text octets to be
checksummed, the last octet is padded on the right with zeros to
form a 16 bit word for checksum purposes. The pad is not
transmitted as part of the segment. While computing the checksum,
the checksum field itself is replaced with zeros.

The checksum also covers a 96 bit pseudo header conceptually

可见,算法和之前提到的校验和算法完全一致,根据描述校验和的计算需要包含伪首部和整个TCP 包。

根据描述,假设IP 包校验和已经计算完毕,那么其中的TCP 包校验和可以用C 语言做如下计算。

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char *tcpsumblock; /* 伪首部 + TCP 头 + 数据 */
struct iphdr *ipheader;
struct tcphdr *tcpheader;
pseudohdr_t pseudoheader;
const size_t ipheaderSize = (struct iphdr *)packet;
ipheader = (struct iphdr *)packet;
tcpheader = (struct tcphdr *)(packet + ipheaderSize);
/* 填充tcpheader... */
/* 填充pseudoheader */
pseudoheader.src = ipheader->saddr;
pseudoheader.dst = ipheader->daddr;
pseudoheader.zero = 0;
pseudoheader.protocol = ipheader->protocol;
pseudoheader.len = htons (sizeof (struct tcphdr));
/* 填充tcpsumblock */
tcpheader->check = 0;
tcpsumblock = (char *)malloc (packetSize);
memcpy (tcpsumblock, &pseudoheader, sizeof (pseudohdr_t));
memcpy (tcpsumblock + sizeof (pseudohdr_t), packet, packetSize);
/* 计算TCP 包校验和 */
tcpheader->check =
GetChecksum (tcpsumblock, sizeof (pseudohdr_t) + packetSize - ipheaderSize);
free (tcpsumblock);
tcpsumblock = NULL;

UDP 包校验和的计算

UDP 包校验和的计算方法在RFC 768 中有如下说明:

Checksum is the 16-bit one’s complement of the one’s complement sum of a
pseudo header of information from the IP header, the UDP header, and the
data, padded with zero octets at the end (if necessary) to make a
multiple of two octets.

The pseudo header conceptually prefixed to the UDP header contains the
source address, the destination address, the protocol, and the UDP
length. This information gives protection against misrouted datagrams.
This checksum procedure is the same as is used in TCP.

所以UDP 包校验和的计算方法和TCP 包如出一辙,同样包含了一个伪首部。

具体的实现可以参考之前计算TCP 包校验的C 语言实现。

文章目录
  1. 1. 校验和算法
  2. 2. IP 包校验和的计算
  3. 3. ICMP 包校验和的计算
  4. 4. TCP 和UDP 包校验和的计算
    1. 4.1. 伪首部
    2. 4.2. TCP 包校验和的计算
    3. 4.3. UDP 包校验和的计算
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